Sunday, December 15, 2019

Euthanasia of people with dementia. Medpage "ethics consult"

Alex Schadenberg
Executive Director, Euthanasia Prevention Coalition

Last week, Medpage Today posted an "Ethics Consult" concerning euthanasia of a person with dementia.



The consult was based on the euthanasia death of a Dutch woman who requested euthanasia in her advanced directive, but then resisted and said NO at the time of the euthanasia. The physician put a sedative in her coffee, to settle her down, but the woman continued to resist so the physician had the family hold her down as she was lethally injected. A Dutch court decided that the euthanasia had been carried out with proper care and cleared the doctor of all charges.

The Medpage consult had more than 5100 physicians respond. Medpage asked: 
On the day of the determined death, the patient became agitated to the point of screaming and pushing the physician away when he approached. It became clear that she would need to be sedated and physically restrained to administer the lethal injection.
1 Do you proceed with the euthanasia?
750 physicians responded YES and 4,400 physicians NO.
I am concerned that 750 physicians responded YES, nonetheless, a strong majority responded NO.


In Canada euthanasia is done by physicians or nurse practitioners who lethally inject the person. Canada's criminal code recognizes this as a form of homicide but the government provided an exception to homicide when two doctors or nurse practitioners agree that the person qualifies for euthanasia. Nonetheless this is homicide.

I oppose creating exceptions to homicide/murder, but in this case the person is incapable of consenting at the time of death. Therefore the defense of consent, which the law requires, is not possible.

Secondly, when a person is declared incompetent they legally unable to change their legal documents, such as a Power of Attorney (Living Will). Therefore incompetent people are legally unable to change their minds.

If euthanasia is permitted based on a statement in a Power of Attorney document, the physician or nurse practitioner would be able to lethally inject (euthanasia) the person even if the person had changed their mind.
* Protect your life by purchasing the Life Protecting Power of Attorney for Personal Care (Link).
The fact that Canada is debating this issue proves that euthanasia is deceptive and fatally flawed, nonetheless, euthanasia for people with dementia should be rejected.

Friday, December 13, 2019

Fighting assisted suicide and euthanasia in New York State. Conference - January 14.

The Euthanasia Prevention Coalition - USA and New York Against Assisted Suicide have a conference/training session at the Albany Statehouse (Albany NY)

Tuesday January 14, 2020 from 10:30 am to 2:30 pm.


Nancy Elliott
More details coming soon. 
The speakers include:

Alex Schadenberg, Euthanasia Prevention Coalition (EPC) Founder and Executive Director

Nancy Elliott, EPC-USA Chair and former three term New Hampshire State Representative.

Dr Paul Saba
Dr Paul Saba, co-founder and co-preseident of the Coalition of Physicians for Social Justice

Dawn Eskew, Founder, New York Against Assisted Suicide.


Register by emailing info@epcc.ca

New York Governor Andrew Cuomo has said that he supports assisted suicide.

This event is will inform and activate New York citizens to defeat assisted suicide.


More information about assisted suicide.

The Economist Swoons over Death Doctor & His Suicide Machine

This article was published by National Review online on December 13, 2019.

By Wesley Smith

The mainstream media mostly went head over heels over Jack Kevorkian’s ghoulish assisted suicide campaign, rarely mentioning that his ultimate goal was to gain the right to conduct human vivisection on people being euthanized.

The Australian Kevorkian — Philip Nitschke — hasn’t advocated that. But he has traveled the world teaching people how to commit suicide, published a suicide recipe he invented made of common household ingredients, and pushed a pernicious death-on-demand philosophy. Now The Economist swoons over “the bad boy of the euthanasia movement,” touting his new suicide pod machine in a profile of a length few presidents have received. From, “A Design for Death:”
My host’s name is Philip Nitschke and he’s invented a machine called Sarco. Short for sarcophagus, the slick, spaceship-like pod has a seat for one passenger en-route to the afterlife. It uses nitrogen to enact a pain-free, peaceful death from inert-gas asphyxiation at the touch of a button. With the help of his wife and colleague, the writer and lawyer Dr Fiona Stewart, Nitschke is ushering the death-on-demand movement towards a dramatic new milestone – and their enthusiasm is palpable.
And he’s such a jolly fellow!
Nitschke and Stewart are much jollier than you’d expect the right-to-die movement’s only power couple to be. They’re full of – well – joie de vivre and arch banter about everything from Brexit to the roadworks that have denuded the front of their home of a beloved creeper. “If it’s not dead, boy is it doing a bloody good impression of being dead,” observes Nitschke, correctly.
And he’s so good at the suicide sales pitch!
It’s undeniable that Nitschke’s campaigns have exhibited a certain PR-savvy pizzazz. He is the originator, no less, of the euthanasia flash mob, which took place to celebrate his 70th birthday and 20 years of Exit International (soundtrack: Bon Jovi’s “It’s My Life”, naturally). When he announced plans for Sarco, it was dismissed by some, says Nitschke, as “a stunt, or some virtual creation in someone’s mind that didn’t have any prospect of physical reality.”

I can attest that the machine exists, having had the singular experience of reclining on a prototype at Nitschke’s workshop on an industrial estate in Hillegom, South Holland, amidst the incongruous spring blaze of the tulip fields. Plus, scratch the surface of his provocative patter and there’s a person – a patient – lurking behind each of his convictions.
I think we should be very clear about who, exactly, The Economist is touting. Nitschke, the nihilist, told NRO’s Katherine Jean Lopez that he wants suicide pills made available in supermarkets. Katherine asked Nitschke whether they should be available to “troubled teens.” Why, yes, he said. From Katherine’s NRO interview:
My personal position is that if we believe that there is a right to life, then we must accept that people have a right to dispose of that life whenever they want. (In the same way as the right to freedom of religion has implicit the right to be an atheist, and the right to freedom of speech involves the right to remain silent). I do not believe that telling people they have a right to life while denying them the means, manner, or information necessary for them to give this life away has any ethical consistency.

So all people qualify, not just those with the training, knowledge, or resources to find out how to “give away” their life. And someone needs to provide this knowledge, training, or recourse necessary to anyone who wants it, including the depressed, the elderly bereaved, [and] the troubled teen. If we are to remain consistent and we believe that the individual has the right to dispose of their life, we should not erect artificial barriers in the way of sub-groups who don’t meet our criteria.
Nitschke has taught elderly people how to get animal euthanasia drugs to use on themselves. He has repeatedly lied about those he counseled on suicide, such as that of Nancy Crick, who Nitschke falsely claimed to the media that she had terminal cancer. Nitschke wasn’t near her when she died to avoid criminal his own culpability, but his fans were — and they applauded when she swallowed the pills. When I traveled to Australia in 2001 to expose him about the above-quoted interview with Katherine, he accused me of lying in the media. He also used to sell plastic suicide bags to suicidal people until stopped by the Australian government.

The man is thoroughly reprehensible. No wonder the mainstream media is attracted to him like a magnet to metal. They love their transgressives!

Thursday, December 12, 2019

BC Health Minister says he will force the Delta Hospice to kill.

Alex Schadenberg
Executive Director - Euthanasia Prevention Coalition

Sign the petition: Hospice Organizations Must NOT be Forced to do Euthanasia (Link).
The BC Health Minister, Adrian Dix, declared yesterday that the BC government will take action if the Delta hospice refuses to kill its patients.

Adrian Dix has suggested that they will stop funding the 10 bed Delta Hospice if it refuses to kill.


On December 2, I reported that the Board of the Delta BC Hospice Society that operates the Irene Thomas Hospice in Ladner BC, renewed its position opposing euthanasia (MAiD) while supporting excellent care. The Board stated:
MAiD is not compatible with the Delta Hospice Society purposes stated in the society's constitution, and therefore, will not be performed at the Irene Thomas Hospice.
In its recent Call to Action, the Canadian Hospice Palliative Care Association and the Canadian Society of Palliative Care Physicians stated that MAiD (euthanasia) is not part of hospice palliative care. They stated:
MAiD is not part of hospice palliative care; it is not an “extension” of palliative care nor is it one of the tools “in the palliative care basket”. National and international hospice palliative care organizations are unified in the position that MAiD is not part of the practice of hospice palliative care. 
...Hospice palliative care sees dying as a normal part of life and helps people to live and die well. Hospice palliative care does not seek to hasten death or intentionally end life. 
The Delta Optimist newpaper reported, on December 7, that Fraser Health informed the Delta Hospice that their position is at odds with the policy of Fraser Health. A spokesperson for Fraser Health told the Delta Optimist that:
The region noted it fully supports a patient’s right to receive medical assistance in dying wherever they may be, including in a hospice setting.
The position of the Delta Hospice is not new. In February 2018, the Delta Hospice was ordered by Fraser Health to provide euthanasia. The Delta Hospice did not comply with the Fraser Health edict.

If the Delta Hospice closes, the residents of Delta will lose the 10 bed hospice that is known for providing excellent end-of-life care.

If the Delta Hospice is forced to do euthanasia, then all Canadian Hospice groups will be forced to do euthanasia.
Sign the petition: Hospice Organizations Must NOT be Forced to do Euthanasia (Link).

Disability Activist Anita Cameron To Speak At Congressional Briefing On Assisted Suicide


Link to the article published by Not Dead Yet.

Bipartisan Resolution Opposing Assisted Suicide Laws Reintroduced

Anita Cameron
Anita Cameron, director of minority outreach for Not Dead Yet, will speak at a Congressional briefing to be held Thursday, December 12, 2019 in Room 2168 of the Rayburn House Office Building.

The briefing is cosponsored by the National Council on Disability (NCD), Congressman Lou Correa (D-CA) and Congressman Brad Wenstrup (R-OH). This briefing will explore the findings and recommendations of a recent federal study of the country’s assisted suicide laws and their effect on access to health care and other dangers for people with disabilities.

The briefing coincides with this week’s reintroduction of a bipartisan House resolution,

“Expressing the sense of the Congress that assisted suicide (sometimes referred to using other terms) puts everyone, including those most vulnerable, at risk of deadly harm.”
Representative Correa is the lead sponsor, joined by Representative Wenstrup, and additional original cosponsors are Rep. James Langevin (D-RI), Rep. Andy Harris, M.D. (R-MD), Rep. Daniel Lipinski (D-IL), Rep. Darin LaHood (R-IL), Rep. Collin Peterson (D-MN), Rep. Ralph Abraham, M.D. (R-LA), Rep. Chris Smith (R-NJ), Rep. Ann Wagner (R-MO), and Rep. Matt Cartwright (D-PA).

Cameron has often spoken of the risks posed to people of color if assisted suicide becomes normalized in our healthcare system. 

“Due to racial disparities, Blacks and people of color receive inferior healthcare compared to Whites, especially in cardiac care, diabetes and pain management. Blacks are diagnosed with cancer at much later stages and the prognosis is worse,” 
Cameron says. 
“With so much documented healthcare injustice, we should not grant the system a greater license to kill.”
Diane Coleman
NDY’s president and CEO, Diane Coleman, also provided a statement in support of the resolution: 

“As a national, secular, social justice organization, Not Dead Yet strongly supports this bipartisan effort to speak truth to counter the many myths about legalized assisted suicide. As Americans with disabilities, we are on the front lines of the nation’s health care system that too often devalues old, ill, and disabled people. We are deeply concerned that profits are being prioritized over human needs. So we are grateful for this Sense of Congress that explains the dangers of mistake, coercion, and abuse under a public policy of assisted suicide.”
Additional national disability organizations issuing statements this week supporting the resolution include ADAPT, Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund and the National Council on Independent Living.

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Delta Hospice Must Not Be Forced to do Euthanasia.

Alex Schadenberg
Executive Director, Euthanasia Prevention Coalition
Sign the petition: Hospice Organizations Must NOT be Forced to do Euthanasia (Link).
In February 2018 the Board
of the Delta BC Hospice was given an Edict from Fraser Health to provide euthanasia (MAiD).

At that time, the Board of the Delta Hospice decided not to do euthanasia and continued its good work.

 
Recently, the Board of the Delta Hospice re-stated its opposition to euthanasia. The new board passed a resolution stating:
MAiD is not compatible with the Delta Hospice Society purposes stated in the society's constitution, and therefore, will not be performed at the Irene Thomas Hospice.
A spokesperson for Fraser Health told the Delta Optimist that:
it fully supports a patient’s right to receive medical assistance in dying wherever they may be, including in a hospice setting.
The order by Fraser Health is contrary to the stated purpose of the Delta Hospice Society constitution.
Sign the petition: Hospice Organizations Must NOT be forced to do Euthanasia (Link).
If funding for the 10 bed hospice is stopped people in the community requiring care at the end of life, will lose the excellent care provided by the Delta Hospice.

By forcing the Delta Hospice to provide euthanasia, Fraser Health is also redefining the meaning of hospice/palliative care.

In its recent Call to Action, the Canadian Hospice Palliative Care Association and the Canadian Society of Palliative Care Physicians stated that MAiD (euthanasia) is not a part of hospice palliative care. They stated:
MAiD is not part of hospice palliative care; it is not an “extension” of palliative care nor is it one of the tools “in the palliative care basket”. National and international hospice palliative care organizations are unified in the position that MAiD is not part of the practice of hospice palliative care. 
...Hospice palliative care sees dying as a normal part of life and helps people to live and die well. Hospice palliative care does not seek to hasten death or intentionally end life. 
If the Delta Hospice is forced to provide euthanasia then all Hospice Palliative Care organizations within Canada can be forced to provide euthanasia.

Hospice/Palliative Care is not MAiD. The Delta Hospice must not be forced to provide MAiD.

Fraser Health is overstepping its role as a health authority in forcing and bullying the Delta Hospice to provide MAiD.

Sign the petition: Hospice Organizations Must NOT be forced to do Euthanasia (Link).

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Western Australia Legalizes Lethal Injection Euthanasia

This article was published by National Review online on December 10, 2019.

Wesley Smith
By Wesley J Smith

The euthanasia darkness seeps into Western Australia. From the Australian Broadcasting Corporation story:
Under the scheme, to be eligible a person would have to be terminally ill with a condition that is causing intolerable suffering and is likely to cause death within six months, or 12 months for a neurodegenerative condition. 
A person would have to make two verbal requests and one written request. Those requests would have to be signed off by two doctors who are independent of each other. 
The choice of lethal medication would be a clinical decision from an approved list of drugs. Self-administration would be the preferred method, but in a departure from the Victorian regime, a patient could choose for a medical practitioner to administer the drug.
“Intolerable suffering” has no objective test. It is whatever a patient says it is — even if the illness is not the reason for the suicide/homicide request.

Where will this lead? Over time, into the bottomless moral pit into which the Netherlands, Belgium, and increasingly Canada have already jumped.

I can’t escape the irony that people seem to lack faith in doctors to care for patients properly and ameliorate their suffering, but ironically, will allow these same doctors to kill them. Bizarre.

Delta Hospice ordered by Fraser Health to do euthanasia.

Alex Schadenberg
Executive Director - Euthanasia Prevention Coalition



Delta Hospice
On December 2, I reported that the Board of the Delta BC Hospice Society that operates the Irene Thomas Hospice in Ladner BC, renewed its position opposing euthanasia (MAiD) while supporting excellent care. The Board stated that:
MAiD is not compatible with the Delta Hospice Society purposes stated in the society's constitution, and therefore, will not be performed at the Irene Thomas Hospice.
Fraser Health, the government agency that allocates health funding in that region reacted to the Delta Hospice Society by ordering them to provide MAiD (euthanasia).
Sign the petition: Hospice Organizations Must NOT be forced to do Euthanasia (Link).
The Delta Optimist newpaper reported, on December 7, that Fraser Health informed the Delta Hospice that their position is at odds with the policy of Fraser Health.

A spokesperson for Fraser Health told the Delta Optimist that:

The region noted it fully supports a patient’s right to receive medical assistance in dying wherever they may be, including in a hospice setting.
The Delta Optimist also reported that the lobby group, Dying With Dignity, also believes that the Delta Hospice should be forced to do euthanasia:
Alex Muir with the Vancouver chapter of Dying with Dignity Canada called the new board’s vote to repeal MAiD disappointing, adding his group believes Delta Hospice should be forced to abide by Fraser Health policy that MAiD be provided in all non-faith-based facilities under its jurisdiction.

Muir then added that Dying With Dignity considers palliative care and MAiD to be essential options on a spectrum of care.
Delta Hospice President
Delta Hospice President, Angelina Ireland
The position of the Delta Hospice is not new. In February 2018, the Delta Hospice was ordered by Fraser Health to provide euthanasia. The Delta Hospice did not comply with the edict from Fraser Health at that time.

Recently the Canadian Hospice Palliative Care Association (CHPCA) and the Canadian Society of Palliative Care Physicians released a joint statement upholding that hospice palliative care is not compatible with MAiD (euthanasia). They stated:

Healthcare articles and the general media continue to conflate and thus misrepresent these two fundamentally different practices. MAiD is not part of hospice palliative care; it is not an “extension” of palliative care nor is it one of the tools “in the palliative care basket”. National and international hospice palliative care organizations are unified in the position that MAiD is not part of the practice of hospice palliative care.

Hospice palliative care and MAiD substantially differ in multiple areas including in philosophy, intention and approach. Hospice palliative care focuses on improving quality of life and symptom management through holistic person-centered care for those living with life threatening conditions. Hospice palliative care sees dying as a normal part of life and helps people to live and die well. Hospice palliative care does not seek to hasten death or intentionally end life.
If the Delta Hospice is forced to do euthanasia, then all Canadian Hospice groups can be forced to do euthanasia.
Sign the petition: Hospice Organizations Must NOT be forced to do Euthanasia (Link).

Popular articles opposing euthanasia and assisted suicide.

1. Sick Kids Hospital Toronto will euthanize children with or without parental consent - Oct 10, 2018.

2. Paediatric Palliative Care Symposium and child euthanasia - February 26, 2018.


3. Declaration of Hope – Jan 1, 2016.


4. Fatal Flaws film will change the way you view assisted death - June 8, 2018.


5. Margaret Dore: Assisted Suicide: A Recipe for Elder Abuse and the Illusion of Personal Choice - Feb 17, 2011.


6. Kitty Holman: 5 reasons why people devalue the elderly – May 25, 2010.

7. Emily “Laura” healthy 24-year-old Belgian woman who was approved for euthanasia, has chosen to live. Nov 12, 2015.

8. Kate Kelly: Mild stroke led to mother’s forced death by dehydration – Sept 27, 2011.

9.  The Euthanasia Deception documentary. - Sept 30, 2016.

10. Healthy 24 year old Belgian woman was scheduled for euthanasia - June 24, 2015.

11. Boycott Me Before You - "disability death porn" - May 26, 2016.

12. Depressed Belgian woman dies by Euthanasia – Feb 6, 2013.

13. Legalizing euthanasia saves money. Jan 23, 2017.

14. Dr's Annette Hanson & Ronald Pies: 12 Myths about Assisted Suicide and Medical Aid in Dying. July 9, 2018.

15. Physically healthy 23-year-old Belgian woman is being considered for euthanasia - October 14, 2019.

16.  Euthanasia is out-of-control in the Netherlands – Sept 25, 2012.

17. Belgian twins euthanized out of fear of blindness. – Jan 14, 2013.


18. Netherlands euthanasia review committee: euthanasia done on a woman with dementia was done in "good faith" -  Jan 28, 2017.

19. Mother upset after doctor urged her to approve assisted death for her daughter with disabilities - July 26, 2017.

20. Assisted suicide law prompts insurance company to deny coverage to terminally ill woman - Oct 20, 2016. 

21. Judge uphold decision. Assisted suicide is prohibited in California. May 31, 2018.


22. Woman dies by euthanasia, may only have had a bladder infection - Nov 14, 2016.

23. Woman with Anorexia Nervosa dies by euthanasia in Belgium – Feb 10, 2013.

24. New Mexico assisted suicide bill is the most extreme bill - Dec 21, 2018.

25. 29-year-old healthy Dutch woman died by assisted death for psychiatric reasons. Jan 15, 2018. 


Become a member of the Euthanasia Prevention Coalition ($25) membership.


More important articles:

Monday, December 9, 2019

Are people being coerced to euthanasia?

Alex Schadenberg
Executive Director, Euthanasia Prevention Coalition


Last week I had the opportunity to screen the Fatal Flaws film and speak in Victoria, Nanaimo and Campbell River British Columbia. Thank you to the local organizers who made this possible.

This article is about three stories from the three events where I spoke.


The first story was from a woman who spoke to me after the Campbell River presentation. She told me that her father has medical issues and has been offered MAiD on several occasions. She said that her father has never brought up the topic of euthanasia and being offered euthanasia feels like a form of coercion.

The second story was a man whose mother requires dialysis. He said that while his mother was feeling down from her dialysis that a nurse suggested that she consider MAiD. Another person then agreed with this suggestion. He said that his mother didn't bring up the issue of euthanasia and felt coerced by the suggestion. He said that she was feeling depressed and if she did not call him she may have asked for death.

The third story was a woman who told me that she was approved for euthanasia. She appeared to be physically healthy but when speaking to her she seemed to have psychological issues (I am not a professional, this is only my impression).

Now that euthanasia is legal, how are these decisions being made?


Candice Lewis with her mother Sheila
One of the most powerful stories, in the Fatal Flaws film, is the story of Candice Lewis who was pressured by a doctor to ask for assisted death. (Link to the story).

Euthanasia is sold as a form of freedom. In these cases the people felt coerced to ask for euthanasia. In other words, choice can be an illusion.

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Western Australia Assisted Dying bill leaves people open to coercion

This article was published by the Sydney Morning Herald on December 9, 2019

By Xavier Symons

Western Australia is set to become the 18th jurisdiction in the world to legalise some form of assisted suicide or euthanasia. Last week its state upper house voted resoundingly in favour of the Voluntary Assisted Dying Bill 24 to 11. A special sitting of the lower house on Tuesday is expected to consider some amendments and then pass it into law.

Labor Premier Mark McGowan has dismissed concerns about the government-sponsored law as “ridiculous”, and has accused opponents of “scaremongering”. He is being unduly sanguine. The Western Australian assisted dying bill is significantly more permissive than the one passed by Victoria in 2017.

Western Australian adults will be eligible for assisted suicide or euthanasia if they have been diagnosed with a terminal illness, have six months or less to live (12 months in the case of neurodegenerative illness), and are suffering in a manner that they deem to be intolerable. A patient must make three requests – two verbal and one in writing – and must be assessed by two medical practitioners.

Unlike Victoria, WA will not require a patient to be assessed by a specialist. Two GPs, for example, could approve a request for euthanasia from a patient with pancreatic cancer or motor neurone disease even if they have never treated patients with these conditions before. Critics warn that non-specialists may provide inaccurate diagnoses and prognoses for terminally ill patients, leading to wrongful deaths. “[If] we get it wrong in relation to a diagnosis, what number [of wrongful deaths] is acceptable?”says former Labor MP Tim Hammond, a vocal opponent of the bill.

Critics also claim that people with mental illness will be at risk. Doctors in Victoria are advised by the state’s legislation to refer patients to a psychiatrist if they have a mental illness that affects their decision-making capacity. The WA bill contains no such provision. Suicide prevention advocate and former SANE Australia director Michael Perrott slammed this oversight, arguing that “we need specially trained people to deal with those who are mentally unwell”.

One hotly debated issue was that the bill will allow doctors to initiate conversations about euthanasia. This is problematic. Doctors may be tempted to suggest the easiest (and cheapest) solution. What if a neurologist proposes euthanasia as “the best option” for a patient diagnosed with an inoperable brain tumour?

This bill exposes patients to undue influence from doctors. In addition, Indigenous groups, culturally and linguistically diverse populations and patients with disabilities may misinterpret a doctor’s words. But it also leaves doctors exposed to pressure from families who want them to recommend euthanasia.

The upper house accepted amendments to an earlier draft, including a clause that ensures that witnesses and practitioners involved in a patient’s application for euthanasia are not beneficiaries of the patient’s will. Yet other amendments were rejected, including provisions for equitable access to palliative care in rural areas and adequate oversight for patients with mental illness.

The method of assisted dying in WA will be either the self-administration of a lethal dose of medication (assisted suicide), or administration of the drug by a medical practitioner (euthanasia). In Victoria, a doctor can only administer the drug if a patient is physically incapable.

This is important. Rates of euthanasia are higher in Canada, for instance, where patients can choose either euthanasia or assisted suicide. There may be a far higher rate of patients in WA choosing to end their lives than most politicians have anticipated.

Victoria’s legislation was described by Premier Daniel Andrews as “the most conservative euthanasia law in the world”. Perhaps the Western Australian bill should be described as the most liberal euthanasia law in Australia. It leaves sick and elderly Australians open to coercion at the most vulnerable moments of their lives.

Xavier Symons is a research associate in the Institute for Ethics and Society at the University of Notre Dame.

Printfriendly